How to Steep the Perfect Cup of Tea

Posted Sep 15th, 2017 in In The Kitchen, Food Stories

How to Steep the Perfect Cup of Tea

Brewing the perfect cup of tea doesn't have to be difficult but there is an art to it. Here's how to steep the perfect cup of tea. This story originally appeared in Niagara Life.

Pam Cicci signed her Team Tea membership card early in life.

It was her Welsh grandmother, Gwen, who recruited her as a young girl with a cup of steeped black leaves softened with generous additions of milk and sugar.

Cicci takes a little less of each in her orange pekoe these days. She’s also become an ace at properly brewing a cup of steeped leaves, which she’ll happily serve you with all the milk and sugar you want at her shop, Gwen’s Teas, in St. Catharines.

For those who prefer to have a go at the perfect cup themselves, here are Cicci’s tips for a tisane that’s tops.

The Big Teas

From black to white, green to pu’erh (pronounced poo-air), herbal to oolong, there’s no shortage of tea types to put in your cup. It’s all up to personal taste, including what accompaniments you add to drink it down.

“There are rules that exist to get the best flavour, though,” Cicci says. And that comes down to knowing the ideal water temperature to tease out the essence of your favourite leaves.

Use fresh water “just off the boil” for white or green tea, including matcha, that won’t leave you seeing red. The cooler water temperature won’t scald the tender leaves, so catch your kettle before it starts its shrill shriek to indicate a rolling boil, or let it sit for a few minutes afterward, Cicci advises. Start stepping when water reaches 80°C (176°F).

Black tea can stand the heat, however, because it’s been oxidized. Herbal and rooibos teas also like it hot. “You definitely want to use boiling water,” Cicci says.

Oolong tea falls somewhere in between. Aim for water that’s 85°C (185°F) to 95°C (203°F).

Timing is everything

Steep your leaves for too long and you’ll pour nothing but a bitter brew from your Brown Betty. Three to five minutes is the general range that Cicci recommends for steeping.

Green tea needs the least amount of time to soak. Give it one to three minutes maximum, otherwise one sip might leave you feeling as though you’ve been dropkicked in the throat.

White tea and pu’erh are good to go after three minutes, while black and herbal leaves can stay steeping for up to five minutes.

“The reason you don’t want to go longer is because it changes the property of it,” Cicci warns. “With black tea, you’re losing caffeine, whereas with herbals, it pulls more flavour out and they don’t have as much to lose from over-steeping.

How to steep the perfect cup of tea |
Thanks Shutterstock!

How much is enough?

The general rule is one teaspoon of loose-leaf tea per cup. That changes if you’re brewing an entire pot.

“There’s a British expression: a teaspoon per person plus one for the pot,” Cicci says.

Still, some people don’t find that’s enough to make more than coloured water in their cup, so Cicci suggests increasing the amount of tea used to boost flavour rather than extending the brew time.

“You don’t want to over-steep, so it’s safer to have more than a teaspoon to bring out the flavour,” she advises.

Be careful not to stuff your infuser too full, though. You want enough room for tea leaves to expand and water to pass through them.

Good news is green and white teas can be steeped more than once to bring out different nuances in their flavour. Black tea peaks at one brew.

Cup queries

Some have steadfast rules about the proper vessels for serving and sipping tea. Cicci doesn’t hold it against anyone for choosing a chunky ceramic mug over fine china to lap up their lapsang souchang, however.

“That comes down to personal preference. In China, they use cast iron or terracotta and small cups. That’s more a cultural thing than bringing out the taste.”


  • Marc on Jul 5th, 2018
    Thanks for the engaging summary that shows me that I’m somewhat of a tea rebel: I probably use more tea and steep longer than your experts recommend — about 12 mL of black tea in 400 mL of boiling water, steeped for 3:33 (easy to program on timer!). My tea measurement is a little bit lax, however, and some mornings I mis-measure and get an unpleasant brew. The advice about infuser packing is critical: to get flavor (and caffeine!), you need good contact between leaf and water, and a tightly packed leaves don’t let the water flow around them. Personally, I always skip the infuser and pour water over loose leaves. One thing about coffee and tea discussions that always bothers me is the term “cup,” which is easily confused with the cup volume measurement used in the U.S. and other backward-units places (1 cup = 8 fluid oz. = 236 mL). Just how big is a tea or coffee cup? I seem to remember 6 fluid oz (177 mL) was a common size.
  • Marlene on Jul 5th, 2018
    I may be one step closer now to the elusive ‘perfect’ cup of tea — thanks!
  • Jennifer on Aug 4th, 2018
    Nice post! I can’t wait to try this out tomorrow morning! I just have a couple of questions though. First is, does the amount of tea bags used vary with the type of tea? like green vs. black and so on. And the other is, can I use my french press in replace of a strainer? Thanks!
  • Tiffany on Aug 25th, 2018
    Hi Jennifer I use my French press instead of a strainer. I measure out by loose-leaf tea with measuring spoons. If you're making an average cup and using bags, I find one bag is plenty. I hope that helps.
  • Peterson on Oct 6th, 2018
    Love this post! I tried the plate on the top thing and I'm so shaken by how the difference in my tea was when I tasted it, it's now my favorite. Thanks!

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